PlayStation 5 Might Launch in India at the Same Time as Its International Launch

On the off chance that you are amped up for the forthcoming PlayStation comfort dispatch, this news will most likely make you much progressively energized. As indicated by new reports, Sony might be propelling the PS5 in India simultaneously as its global dispatch. For those unconscious, the Japanese mammoth has as a rule propelled its consoles in India some time after their universal accessibility. Be that as it may, that is presumably not going to be the situation this year.

Alongside that uplifting news, which comes politeness of The Mako Reactor, there’s likewise some terrible news to go. Purportedly, a Delhi retailer has implied that the cost of the PS5 will be entirely high. “We needed to list the PS5 on our social channels a couple of months prior,” says the retailer. “No cost has been given to us and we simply needed to do this so clients could let us know whether they’re intrigued. Anyway Sony India revealed to us it would be on the costly side when it hits and has requested that we center around PS4.”

While it’s a touch of unsettling that the support will be “on the costly side when it hits”, it’s not very astonishing. The PS5 is a wide margin in front of the PS4 as far as equipment and capacity. Having a more significant expense likely could be advocated by the new encounters the reassure opens, including those brought along by the new Dual Sense controller.

Here are the PlayStation 5 Games Sony Showed Off

Sony Just Revealed the PlayStation 5 Design

Nokia 43-inch 4K Smart TV with Dolby Audio Launched at Rs. 31,999 in India

Nokia banded together with Flipkart to dispatch its first-since forever 4K savvy TV back in December a year ago. It was a 55-inch shrewd TV with a top notch bezel-less plan and JBL Audio support. Presently, the organization has today taken the wraps off the new 43-inch keen TV with 4K goals, MEMC backing, and JBL sound advancements.

Nokia 43-inch Smart TV: Specs and Features

The new 43-inch Nokia Smart television conveys forward a similar premium plan as the 55-inch variation. There’s insignificant bezels at the top and the edges while the base bezel is thick to house Nokia marking.

The 43-inch board here flaunts a 4K goals (3840 × 2160 pixels) with a 178-degree seeing edge, up to 400 nits of brilliance, and Dolby Vision support. This brilliant TV underpins canny darkening (process picture data continuously to upgrade the quality) and MEMC innovation (for a smooth survey understanding) too.

In the engine, the 43-inch Nokia Smart TV is controlled by the quad-center PureX Cortex-A53 processor. You will likewise discover the Mali 450MP4 GPU, 2.25GB of RAM, and 16GB of capacity installed, alongside Android TV 9.0 out-of-the-case. You gain admittance to famous applications like Netflix and YouTube, Google Assistant, and Play Store to download applications you like.

The keen TV is outfitted with 3x HDMI, 1x USB 2.0, 1x USB 3.0, and an Ethernet port. It additionally underpins Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n (2.4GHz) and Bluetooth 5.0 for remote network. You have 24W base terminating speakers with Dolby Audio and DTS TruSurround support. The speakers here have been enhanced by JBL too, equivalent to its forerunner.

The new 43-inch 4K Nokia Smart TV retails at Rs. 31,999 and will go marked down from eighth June by means of Flipkart in India. The organization has estimated its shrewd TV route higher than the vast majority of the contenders, including Xiaomi and Vu, in the market. It will be intriguing to see whether Nokia will have the option to hold its ground against them.

Purchase Nokia 43-inch 4K Smart TV from Flipkart (Rs. 31,999)

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Here are the PlayStation 5 Games Sony Showed Off

Akshay Gangwar7 hours prior

Sony Just Revealed the PlayStation 5 Design

Akshay Gangwar7 hours prior

Samsung to Launch Galaxy S20+ BTS Edition in Mirror Purple on July 9

Samsung will dispatch a restricted version Galaxy S20+ in organization with famous K-Pop band, BTS. To be known as the Galaxy S20 Plus BTS Edition, it will be propelled all inclusive on July ninth – that day that the BTS ARMY was declared in 2013. The gadget will apparently be accessible in Mirror Purple, and will be up for pre-request from June 19 – July 5. The organization had before tied-up with BTS to advance its cell phones as a feature of a coordinated exertion to connect with a more youthful segment.

Samsung has allegedly collaborated with French book shop and media chain, Fnac, to dispatch the new restricted version model. As indicated by South Korean blog, Hankyung, the BTS Edition will be accessible as a feature of a pack close by the Galaxy Buds+ headphones, much like the Galaxy Z Flip Thom Browne Edition. Be that as it may, while the Z Flip group additionally incorporated the Galaxy Watch Active 2, the S20+ BTS pack will probably give that a miss.


How to Use Netflix And What are the documentaries that can be seen on Netflix

Netflix is a virtual paid platform, which allows the user to experience the format for thirty days for free and enjoy all its great number of series, movies, documentaries, programs and more. After this, you can pay the first month or cancel the service.

If you do not have Netflix yet and you are interested in purchasing the service, we share the prices and how to purchase the subscription.

How much does Netflix cost?

Netflix offers three membership plans for you to choose the one that suits you best. You can access the service from S / .24.90 (in Peru):

  • Basic plan (S /. 24.90) : Plan of 1 SD screen (see one screen at a time, in standard definition)
  • Standard plan (S /. 34.90) : Plan of 2 HD screens (view on two screens at once, in high definition when available)
  • Premium plan (S /. 44.90) : Plan of 4 HD / Ultra HD 4K screens (view on four screens at once, in high definition and ultra high definition when available)
  • DVD plan (only available in the US) : US customers they can subscribe to a DVD- only plan or add DVDs to their current streaming plan.

How to get Netflix?

The platform is available for cell phones, tablets and computers, just by downloading the Netflix app for free in the Play Store or App Store.

How is it paid?

Netflix requires different credit cards for each free trial, but does not charge any fees during this period. It will charge you when you continue with the service. As a Netflix member, you will be billed once a month on the original subscription date. If you no longer want to have the platform, you always have the option to cancel online, whenever you want.

How to cancel Netflix after watching it for free?

You can cancel your free trial at any time during the first 30 days without any charge. To cancel the service, enter the menu, then “Account” and select the “Cancel membership” option.

If you don’t cancel, you won’t be charged until after your free trial ends. They will send you a reminder email three days before your free trial ends to make sure you continue to enjoy the service.

How to use Netflix?

  • Select the ideal membership plan for you.
  • Create an account by entering your email and password.
  • Enter a payment method (credit or debit card).
  • Search your preferences to see and create one or more profiles.
  • Choose your preference profile and enter the main platform.
  • Select the category you like from the menu.

Little by little Netflix has created an impressive catalog of content on its platform, and although many times the spotlights point to their original series or movies, the reality is that today it has a wide range of documentaries, where there are even some of own production .

Within the Netflix documentaries, we can find very interesting things that range from music history, focused on nature or space, to criminal or scientific investigations, going through curious things within pop culture. Today in Xataka we will make a short tour of what we consider the 21 best documentaries that we can currently find on Netflix.

best documentaries that can be seen on Netflix

‘Audrie & Daisy’

A heartbreaking tale, produced by Netflix, focused on cyberbullying . In ‘Audrie & Daisy’ we are told the story of two teenagers who suffered abuse and harassment via the internet , which ultimately ended in sexual assaults. The documentary seeks to emphasize social networks as a harmful element and the lack of laws capable of helping those who suffer this type of harassment.

What begins as the creepy murder of a litter of cats becomes, thanks to the intervention of amateur internet researchers, a race against the clock to unmask a dangerous killer. Undoubtedly, the most unusual true-crime documentary of recent times, but also a poisoned look at what the internet does with our perceptions.

‘Casting JonBenet’

A unique and creepy documentary about the murder of a girl star of beauty pageants, just when a dramatization of her tragedy with amateur actors is being prepared in her hometown. The documentary is not only a wonderful metafiction exercise with the game of mirrors that it proposes, but also an acid look at the harsh world of contests for children.

‘The Alcàsser case’

The most media criminal case in the history of Spain receives an exhaustive analysis in this serial documentary on Netflix, splendidly documented and in which many of those involved in the crime that paralyzed Spain have a voice . Unpublished archive images and new conclusions for a documentary that unleashed a renewed conspiracy wave on the mystery behind the deaths.


Although you are not in the least interested in the world of sports animation, this docuserie that follows the adventures of the competitive cheerleading team at Navarro College is one that maintains the excitement as the final of a soccer world cup. Stunts, very handsome and athletic boys and girls doing and feeling very youthful things, and color and spirit of improvement to stop a train.


According to ‘Cowspiracy’, livestock farming is today the most destructive industry facing our planet. This documentary tries to bring to the table the consequences of this industry, which range from water scarcity to global warming. To these disasters, the production adds an investigation about the public policies that allow this type of activity.

‘Digging up Sad Hill’

A Spanish documentary brimming with nostalgia and cinephilia: a group of friends decide to locate and restore the old Burgos cemetery where the spectacular final climax of ‘The Good, the Ugly and the Bad’ was filmed. A vindication of mythomania and classic cinema to see with the poncho, the revolver and the soundtrack of Ennio Morricone very close.

‘In a nutshell’

The essential news and outreach website Vox (nothing to do with the political party) produces, in line with its extraordinary videos for the internet, a series of documentaries on the most disparate topics: diamonds, sects, epidemics, pirates, millionaires … all in pieces of a duration of around twenty minutes, delicious visually and rigorous in their exposition and points of view. A documentary gem.


What are the different problems and issues comes with iPad

There are times when we have any device (a third-generation iPad Air, for example) and occasionally we detect small technical errors that we think are normal. A few small screen flickers (flickers), from time to time when it goes blank, but as a general rule, we do not stop using them in our day to day thinking that it will end up being removed. But no.

The problem is that all these errors do not occur sporadically and affect a good number of users who have complained to the company over the past few months. Keep in mind that the third-generation iPad Air hit stores just over a year ago, with a new model that increased the screen from 9.7 inches to 10.5 inches. It was the first to modify the original measurements of the first iPad that landed on the market in 2010.

Perhaps because it is an untested panel (if we ignore the Pro model that had a different screen) until that moment, Apple did not measure the problems that it was going to cause and that have led to the launch of a complete support program It covers all users who suffer from these problems of flickers and blank screenshots.

The new iPad Pro 2020 not only has the same processor as its predecessor but is even more fragile since it folds easily . This has been demonstrated by initial tests after its launch, showing that Apple cares little about solving the problems of previous versions while they have more and more cameras. Are we facing a Bendgate 3.0 ?

The first phenomenon known as « Bendgate » took place with the iPhone 6, since it was detected that they bent with some ease , especially when having the terminal in the pocket because when people sat down, they were put under certain pressure and ended up bent. On the iPhone 7, Apple corrected that problem by improving the structural integrity of the terminal, but with the first generation of the iPad Pro, we had a Bendgate 2.0 again, since it also folded easily (a lot, in fact).

IPad Pro 2020 doubles and Apple ignores itself

Now, with the new iPad Pro 2020 just launched on the market, it has been detected that the device easily bends, denoting that Apple has not lifted a finger to solve the problem and questioning, again, the quality of the products of those of Cupertino.

What is more, this new version of the iPad Pro (which is the second generation), only “improves” the cameras and little else, and in fact not only bends through the wide-area but also through the narrow one, as can be seen in the images.

According to Apple, this is not a problem in the design of the device: nobody should keep the iPad Pro in their pocket (there is some reason, because of its size it is not feasible) and therefore should not be folded. The problem is that when you carry it in a backpack something similar happens, the device ends up bending as soon as it is subjected to a certain pressure.

There are already several videos of analysts testing the resistance of the device, and in all cases, they have determined that most of the structural integrity of the iPad Pro 2020 resides in its screen and not in the metal structure, which should be reinforced but not it’s for nothing. This also means that when the iPad Pro 2020 is folded, the screen tends to split and drop glass chips.

If you can’t connect or sign in to iCloud

If you have set up your Apple ID and need help logging in or using iCloud, follow these steps.

Get help signing in to iCloud

Before you begin, check Apple’s system status page to make sure there are no outages or scheduled maintenance currently affecting iCloud, and make sure you logged into iCloud with the same Apple ID on all your devices.

If you can’t remember your Apple ID or password

If you can’t remember your Apple ID, check these settings and services to find it. If you have forgotten your Apple ID password, learn how to reset it.

If you receive a message that your Apple ID is locked or disabled

If you or someone else incorrectly enters the password, security questions, or other account information many times, your Apple ID is automatically blocked for security reasons and you will not be able to log in to any of Apple’s services. Learn how to unlock your Apple ID .

If you can’t log in to

Learn what to do if you have trouble signing in to

If you can’t log in using only mobile data

Make sure your iPhone, iPad, or PC has a good Internet connection and that you have turned on cellular data on your iPhone or iPad from Settings> Cellular or Mobile Data. If this setting is disabled, you may not be able to access your Apple ID and iCloud when you are not connected to a Wi-Fi network.

If you have trouble receiving verification codes or your verification code is rejected

Learn how to get a verification code and sign in to iCloud with two-factor authentication. If your device has iOS 8 or OS X Yosemite or earlier installed, then log in with two-step verification.

If you see a message that Apple ID could not be created or iCloud could not be configured

If you see one of these messages, it means you have exceeded the number of new Apple IDs you can configure with iCloud on a single device in one year. Learn what to do .

Other password indications you can see

If you’re repeatedly asked to enter your Apple ID password on your Mac or iOS device

  • If you recently restored your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch from an iCloud backup, the restoration may not be complete. Stay connected to a reliable Wi-Fi network and power source until restoration is complete. Follow these steps if iCloud backup could not complete or you cannot restore.
  • If you recently changed your Apple ID password, you may need to update your login information with the iCloud services you use. Make sure each service uses your updated login information on your device.
  • Check if you have automatic downloads enabled. If there is content ready to download, you may be asked to enter your Apple ID and password to continue. Learn how to resume interrupted downloads.
  • If you’re an organizer, parent, or guardian of a Family Sharing group, check to see if the indication is a request from a child family member to make a purchase from the iTunes Store. Then you can approve or reject the request .
If you want to log into a third-party app but your password is rejected

If you want to access your iCloud information from a third-party app, you must use an app-specific password. This helps protect your account by allowing you to log in securely. Learn how to create and use app-specific passwords.


Intermittent fasting appears today as a strategy to fight obesity and can have beneficial effects

Today, fasting occurs with the intention of compensating for the excesses produced during a certain time. However, the mediQuo nutritionist stresses that the most important thing is to get used to listening to our own body. “After years of experience visiting patients with different life situations, we have realized that the patient himself knows, more than he believes, what is good for him and what is not, both in quantity and quality.” It is part of our nature, a basic instinct like that of other animals.

According to this, and although today we start from the belief that the diet should be divided into 5 and even 6 meals a day , it may not be necessary to maintain this rhythm and it may even not be beneficial to be “consuming” so “often ”

For Romagosa, “intermittent fasting appears today as a strategy to fight obesity and can have beneficial effects, such as improving the feeling of satiety, reducing the insulin response and systemic inflammation.”

However, even today there is a lack of studies to know, on the one hand, whether intermittent fasting is safe, studying the limits of a physiological and healthy fast ; and, on the other, if it is effective in short and long-term weight loss, as well as its possible benefits in other pathologies associated with being overweight.

What must always be taken into account is that “fasting must be integrated into a balanced and varied diet, rich in fruit and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and protein of plant and animal origin . But above all, it lowers added sugar, processed foods, certain types of fat and superfluous foods, “says Cristina Romagosa, nutritionist at medico.

It is one of the most fashionable weight loss plans due to its widespread use among celebrities, but you have to be careful and do it with supervision for the risks involved.

One of the most used weight loss tricks in recent times is intermittent fasting . It can be done in several ways, although the most common and used is to design time windows in which all the food planned to be eaten each day is eaten, but leaving the rest of the day to fast.

It is a controversial diet since it has as many followers as detractors. In fact, many nutritionists believe that it is a method that brings more inconveniences than advantages to the body, so they do not recommend carrying it out. Therefore, whenever you decide to use this weight loss plan, it is recommended to do it with supervision.

The objective of those who practice this type of diet is to reduce insulin levels, since this facilitates the burning of fats and, at the same time, causes an increase in growth hormone. That time does not come until 8 hours of fasting, but usually when it works best is from 16 hours. So it is a diet that can be dangerous for those who follow it.

How intermittent fasting works

As we said, the most common way to do intermittent fasting is to gather all the meals of the day in a narrow period of time and leaving the rest of the day to fast. For example, a very normal schedule is known as the 16: 8 diet: you eat for eight hours a day and fast for another 16, but choosing the schedule that best suits each person.

Thus, many of the people who follow this diet decide to eat food between 9 in the morning and 5 in the afternoon and fast for the remaining 16 hours of the day. To do this, they eat breakfast at 9, eat lunch before 1 and have dinner at 5, and from that time on, keep fasting until they get up the next day and start again at the same time.

The problem is that some vital organs of the body such as the kidneys, the brain, the liver or the heart can be affected by making this diet a habit. For this reason, it is essential that intermittent fasting is supervised by a specialist so that our health is not affected in the long term, since it could be fatal.

But, once we know the risks of this diet … do we know how long it takes to take effect? According to nutrition specialists at Times of India, it is normal that in about 10 weeks we will find positive results. Although it depends on the basal metabolic index of each person, the truth is that it is possible to lose between 3 and 5 kilos in that period of time.

That ten-week period from the start of intermittent fasting is a good yardstick to see if things are being done right or wrong. Whether we have not reached that minimum of 3 kilos of weight loss or if we have lost much more than 5 kilos, in both cases we will be in an anomalous situation that requires urgent revision.

In these cases, it is best to consult a nutritionist to assess our calorie consumption and can advise us on what is being done well and what we are not doing correctly. In addition, a doctor who supervises our diet can correctly explain the benefits and drawbacks of intermittent fasting.

As we have already pointed out, carrying out this diet can cause problems in important organs such as kidneys, brain, liver or heart, but also in muscles, etc. By contrast, proponents of this weight loss plan suggests that intermittent fasting is good for overall health as well as weight loss , it helps reduce cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar levels in the blood.

Intermittent fasting 16: 8 can be the solution to our weight problems by fasting for 16 hours a day and eating for only 8. But to carry out this diet, the supervision of a specialist is necessary since we could put our health at risk. And, in addition, it should not be used under any circumstances by pregnant women.

Despite the aforementioned possible benefits, the nutrition specialist at medical advises that certain guidelines must be considered before starting a fasting or intermittent fasting diet.

He assures that it is not recommended to carry out this practice without the prior advice of a professional or to perform excessive fasts of several days or prolonged semi-fasts of weeks and even months. In addition, in no case is it recommended for people with any disease or for children, the elderly or pregnant women, as well as for people with eating disorders.

“The most important thing is to have a healthy relationship with food and for this, we must relearn to listen to our bodies. Recognize the signs of satiety, the need to break the fast, divide the diet more or less and enjoy the healthy options again ”, recommends the mediQuo advisor.


Five Fundamental skills that every artist must master

As an artist, your job is to immerse your viewers in a world you’ve built and to safely guide them through it. Artists have a lot in common with storytelling. Storytellers have several tricks they use to keep their readers coming back for more. Like storytellers, artists can use similar tricks to help them produce more engaging illustrations. In this article, we will explain 5 fundamental skills that every artist must master. We’ll see!

The most important aspect of art for me personally is composition. Set the stage for everything else. This is his way of guiding and leading the viewer to feel as if he is truly in your world. If this part of the process is not properly created and controlled, everything else can and probably will fall apart. That doesn’t mean you have to follow every little composition rule you find. In fact, many have broken them and created very successful works of art. It is knowing how and when to break them which will allow you to do it successfully. But before trying something like that, you must first learn the rules and see how they work …

This is the simplest and most widely used composition technique, it is the one I use the most in my compositions. Because it is simple to learn, it is the one I recommend to use for beginners and those who are new to composition fundamentals. When used, it will divide the image into 9 equal parts separated by two horizontal and vertical lines.

The main idea behind this is to place your most important item / object at one of the intersections where the lines converge (the + ‘s), as well as along or near the vertical line wherever your main point is.

It is believed that when this is used and your subject / focal sits on one of these points, it creates more interest in your image rather than centering it.

Everything has a perspective. As you stand on the street, look around you and see which side of the buildings you can see and why you see them all from different points of view. Then while you’re at it, go ahead and look at a path, why does everything seem to get smaller being further away from you? All these things have to do with the perspective of these objects and their point of view.

Perspectives are an essential skill to learn, for architectural, environmental, and many other reasons. They provide us with a way to create and build elements and objects and place them correctly within the image plane. Prospects depend on the horizon line (or sometimes called the eye level line) to find what is called the Vanishing Point. Vanishing points are where your perspective lines will originate (see examples below).

Values ​​are the range of brightness and darkness within your image. They are white, black and everything else. Even with color, how dark or light that color (hue or shadow) is is a value. The closer something is in the foreground, the darker it will appear (depending on lighting and other things, of course), anything that gradually moves away from it will become lighter as it disappears on the horizon (in terms of landscapes ). Take a look at the chart below and use it as a reference for when we discuss it further.

Like the lighting, the color of your piece depends on many things; time of day, season, location, etc. It is important to make the determination of the color scheme from the beginning, even from the planning if possible. Remember that things always change and evolve, so the colors of your piece will also. As with everything, just because something looks good at one point doesn’t necessarily mean it always will. So don’t be afraid to mix things up along the way and find something that better suits what you’re working on. Keep in mind that it’s easy to go overboard with color too, so learn to tell when not to mess with it.

Knowing how to choose your color scheme depends on the time of day, the weather / sky, the season of the year you are in and whether or not you are on a strange planet or in space. There are countless things that can help you shape the colors in your paint, so it’s best to have a clear idea as soon as possible to minimize headaches before moving on to the final stages.

Like all major elements of art, lighting is crucial. Mainly because the average viewer knows what realistic lighting looks like, even if they don’t know exactly what makes it look real. They can usually tell if something is working or not. Sometimes you can get lucky and cheat on them, but most of the time it can break your shot and make all the hard work that went into your room be time and wasted work. And that’s definitely not what we want.

So, to find out how light reacts to the environment and different materials, go out and study. If you are basing a piece on the lighting of something such as Matte painting, study until you can confidently tell another person how it looks, feels, and works. Using photos is fine, but there is an almost infinite fountain just outside those walls waiting for you.

Like color, lighting can convey a lot of emotion and depth. Let’s take a look at how this can be accomplished.

Again, in the image below, there is strong lighting that is projected onto the focal point. Shadows in the foreground create depth in the image and allow the viewer to get a clear view of the focal area without the foreground going unnoticed. Because the foreground is in almost complete shadow and the middle is where we see most of our light, this allows the viewer to have a greater impact on the focal point and what is happening on the scene. Almost immediately they see the destruction of the world around them as if they were there on the street.


Stimulus check in fixed and variable temporally-defines schedules

Stimulus check is a broad strategy by which the presence or absence of a particular stimulus or stimulus complex reliably influences whether or not a response or a particular class of responses will take place.

It contains three fundamental elements:

  • EA environmental stimuli
  • The instrumental response R
  • The ER enhancer.

The EA stimuli that are present when the instrumental response is reinforced can play a very important role in the control of instrumental behavior, the reinforcement of which usually occurs in the presence of specific stimuli, and these stimuli can come to control the execution of the instrumental response.

Pairing hypothesis

The mere presence of a stimulus when a response is reinforced is sufficient for the stimulus to gain control of behavior.

This hypothesis suggests that EA stimuli gain control of the performance of the instrumental response simply because those environmental stimuli are present when the response is enhanced.

This relatively simple idea has had an important and lasting influence on conceptions of stimulus control mechanisms. In early analyzes of instrumental behavior, such as those by Thorndike and Guthrie, environmental stimuli that are present when a response is reinforced were considered to play a very important role in behavior control.

Thorndike, in his law of effect, stated that if a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfactory fact, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened. Due to this association, the instrumental response becomes controlled by the stimulus. The only requirement for the formation of the stimulus-response association was the contiguity of the stimulus with the forced response.

Sensory capacity and orientation

The organism’s sensory ability and orientation help determine how the environment appears to the organism. The presentation of an environmental event with certain characteristics of interest to us does not guarantee that the subject responds to those same characteristics. We must always consider the subject’s perspective in a stimulus control analysis.

One of the most obvious determinants of how the subject perceives his environment is the organism’s sensory capacity. The behavior of a subject can be under the control of a specific stimulus only if the organism is sensitive to this stimulus. The facts that are outside the range of what the subject can detect with his sensory organs do not exist for that subject unless they are amplified or transformed into something that the organism can detect.

Stimulus control

The presence of certain stimuli in a situation can predict the occurrence of certain behaviors.

Karoly identifies four classes of antecedent stimuli:

  • Discriminative stimuli
  • Verbal stimuli
  • Facilitating stimuli
  • Motivational operations

Not all problems require increasing or decreasing behavior. Some require that you respond in the right place at the right time.

Karoly advises the following points before developing a stimulus control program.

  • Identify through observation the functional ties between antecedent stimuli and behaviors that are not to be increased.
  • Identify stimuli that cause inappropriate behavior.
  • Eliminate stimuli for inappropriate behavior.
  • Highlight stimuli more to respond appropriately.
  • Do not overuse stimulus control. Each unreinforced presentation of a stimulus will weaken its power to elicit a response.
  • If an arbitrary stimulus has been established as a discriminative stimulus, gradually transform it into a natural antecedent, in order to promote generalization to the real environment.
  • Train the individual to take charge of control by encouraging their own behavior.

Practice development

Different applications of this technique in real-life situations are discussed. Later, a program will be carried out where the stimulus control technique is the technique used.


The fictional subject is Manuel, a 30-year-old man who works as a waiter in a night bar. As a child, he lived alone with his mother since his father died when he was very young. His sister is an alcoholic and cannot take care of her children, so he cares for them. Given the circumstances, Manuel has started drinking and we want him to quit.

In principle, Manuel’s work environment is not the most appropriate to stop drinking, likewise, the company of his sister is also not appropriate, so we will eliminate for a certain period of time the relationship with his sister and try to make the children of She will stay with another family member to remove the burdens they pose.

Stimulus control

It consists of exercising control over the stimuli that elicit the behavior that is intended to be modified, in order to limit or remove the conditions in which the problem behavior appears.

Examples of stimulating control are: changing a child from place, removing distracting objects that alter the attention of certain children, etc.

Stimulus satiety

The technique consists of repeatedly presenting a stimulus until its ability to elicit the response is reduced. It is based on the principle that the continued exercise of an activity that is initially pleasant, eventually turns into something aversive or unpleasant (negative practice).

When a behavior is excessively reinforced it can be extinguished by saturation. In daily life they are examples of a stimulus society, when food or drink is abused, an activity, etc. These (abuse) end up being extinguished by satiety or satiety.

Its use in children is inadvisable and is more typical of clinical settings in which the modification of tobacco addiction behaviors is addressed, among others.

Abnormal results have been reported in various studies regarding the phenomenon of stimulus control when temporally defined programs are used, concluding that this phenomenon is an artifact of traditional reinforcement programs. In the present work, a conceptual analysis of the term “stimulus control” is made and methodological analysis of the procedures in which the phenomenon is usually observed, and then contrast them with the procedure used when evaluating the phenomenon through temporarily defined programs. It is concluded that the procedures used to evaluate stimulus control through temporally defined programs are not consistent with the classic definition of stimulus control.


Some other reasons why we humans make mistakes

Humans are fallible, prone to making mistakes. Understanding and accepting our fallibility as a reality is the first step in building a culture.safer health. Most people know how to identify a mistake when it is made or observed. However, there are many definitions of error in the literature, here we will base ourselves on the following definition of medical error: “Medical error is the failure to correctly apply an action plan as proposed, or the use of the wrong plan to arrive to the proposed goals. ”

In other relevant definitions, we have: quasi-failure which is defined as “any variation of the process that did not affect the result, but that with a recurrence runs a significant risk of a major adverse event.”

sentinel event is defined as “an unexpected event, involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the risk of it happening. A serious injury specifically includes the loss, or loss of function, of a limb. Any variation of the processes is included, in which their recurrence can present a serious adverse event. These events are called sentinels because they require immediate investigation and response. ”

With a defined medical error definition, you can start analyzing why we make mistakes. When something goes wrong it is usually always attributed to human error. Once the human error is blamed, the investigation usually stops. But it shouldn’t stop, at least not if the goal is to eliminate the error. Why the human could make that mistake or how the system or the device failed to prevent the human from making the mistake must be investigated.

Although we are fallible, people are often not responsible for mistakes. This is because people have systemic biases in the way we perceive the world around us. For example, right-handed people are likely to turn right when entering a new place, even if it is not the best route. Also most people show a preference for the number 7, or the color blue. Expectations can also shape the way we perceive the world, and the way we act. The effect of these biases occurs mainly unconsciously and are difficult to correct.


Many of the qualities that allow humans to do so many things so well have a flip side that makes mistakes. The first area is the ability to quickly assess a situation; We can identify the situations in which we find ourselves almost immediately. Unfortunately, a lot of the details are lost in this quick scan. The problem with this is that we usually think that nothing escaped us, so visual errors are made.


This happens quite frequently in the field of medical malpractice. What usually refers to hindsight bias is the “wrong attribution of guilt”, one of the same mistakes that are made over and over again, and there is no learning from experience. In hindsight, our understanding is always much better because the factors involved in the error are obvious when viewed in retrospect, even when they are not at the time of error.

When we see the cause of an error it is very important to look at the environment and the support systems around humans. For example, if someone has a car accident to come sending messages on the cell phone, it is about changing the system; Now there are cars that allow you to write messages without having to have your cell phone in your hands or stop seeing the road.

By getting a better view of the things we do well and the things we do wrong, it is easier to do them well.


Some other reasons why we humans make mistakes or are more likely to make them are:

  • Lack of sleep (casinos love this reason, as people tend to make riskier bets when they are tired. This explains why casinos are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week).
  • Being unhappy (Humans function best when we are happy. Happiness encourages well-organized thinking and flexible problem solving).
  • Being overly optimistic (Humans have a false sense of confidence when making decisions. This overconfidence when making decisions is one of the main causes of human error).
  • We depend on memory (memory is more of a reconstruction than a reproduction, so it is not as good as humans think. This is why place and surroundings are so important when trying to remember something).

A better understanding of the aforementioned reasons why humans make mistakes can lead us to improve the quality of medical care, as well as to apply better prevention techniques.

Dr. Bernardo Rea Ruanova *
Clinical Risk Manager
Grupo Mexicano de Seguros

Grupo Mexicano de Seguros SA de CV reserves the right to the information, images, colors, design and logos used in this newsletter, as they are protected by the corresponding copyrights, for which their use for purposes other than those proposed in the bulletin.

How to understand the mistakes?

Mistakes are favors that life gives you so that once and for all you start your way. Today we bring you 20 phrases that will help you better understand mistakes.

  1. Don’t waste a good mistake, learn from it. Robert Kiyosaki.
  2. The biggest mistake people make is not making a living doing what they like best. Malcolm Forbes.
  3. Avoiding the situations in which you could make mistakes can be the biggest of all your mistakes. Peter McWilliams.
  4. Experience is simply the name we give to our mistakes. Oscar Wilde.
  5. No matter how many mistakes you make or how slow your progress is, you’re still way ahead of those who don’t try. Tony Robbins.
  6. Success is not about never making mistakes, but about not making the same mistake a second time. George Bernard Shaw.
  7. Those who do not make mistakes are making the greatest of all: not trying anything new. Anthony de Mello.
  8. A failure is not always a mistake. It may simply be the best thing to do under those circumstances. The real mistake is to stop trying. BF Skinner.
  9. I have learned that the best lessons came from my biggest mistakes. Gurbaksh Chahal.
  10. I think the biggest mistake is giving up too quickly. John Kremer.
  11. Take risks, make mistakes. This is how you grow. Pain nurtures courage. You have to fail in order to practice bravery. Mary Tyler Moore.
  12. You must learn from your mistakes, but not rely on your past successes. Denis Waitley.
  13. Mistakes are part of life; you can’t avoid them. The only thing we can hope is that they are not too expensive and not to make the same mistake twice. Lee Iacocca.
  14. A mistake does not have to govern a person’s entire life. Joyce Meyer.
  15. Forgive yourself for your failures and your mistakes and move on. Les Brown.
  16. I was taking myself very seriously when I was going through life changes. And I realized that I needed to laugh at myself, particularly at my mistakes. Spencer Johnson.
  17. Some mistakes have more important consequences than others. However, you should not let the result of your mistakes define you. You have the option of not letting that happen. Jojo Moyes.
  18. We learn by falling. If we never fall, we will never walk. Robert T. Kiyosaki.
  19. I’m glad I didn’t pay attention to the good advice. If I had been guided by them, I would have been saved from the most valuable mistakes of my life. Edna St. Vincent.
  20. Taking a step back after taking the wrong path is taking a step in the right direction. Kurt Vonnegut.